Los Angeles atestat engleza

May 26, 2016 | Author: Stanciu Marian | Category: Types, School Work
Share Embed Donate


Short Description

atestat engleza despre los angeles...

Description

Certificate of competence in English

Subject: City of Los Angeles

Student:Stanciu Marian Coordonator: prof. Gheoorghe Monica Class:XII E

-May 2015-

Los Angeles

2

Table of Contents Foreword....................................................................................................................................................... 4 Chapter I:Introduction .................................................................................................................................. 5 Chapter II:History .......................................................................................................................................... 7 Chapter III:Geography ................................................................................................................................. 10 Chapter IV:Demographics ........................................................................................................................... 12 Chapter V:Economy .................................................................................................................................... 14 Chapter VI:Culture ...................................................................................................................................... 16 Chapter VII:Sports ....................................................................................................................................... 19 Chapter VIII:Government ............................................................................................................................ 20 Conclusion ................................................................................................................................................... 21 Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................ 22

3

Foreword A city of superlatives and mind-blowing contrasts, ―The Big Orange‖, ‖The City of Angels‖ or ―La-La Land‖ are just some of the numerous ways Los Angeles can be called. The most exciting city in the whole territory of the United States , the city that is often referred to as the world capital of entertainment will represent the subject of my certification paper. The main reason why I chose the city of Los Angeles as my subject is because I love this city ,I consider it one of the greatest cities in the world ,a city of opportunities ,where any dream can become true .It is the city with the most celebrities per square mile, where everything seems possible. Located on Southern California's Pacific coast, Los Angeles has long been known as a city of dreams, a place where anyone cand start a new life. You can’t have a boring day in Los Angeles.Discover sea caves and tide pools on the beach ,hike along hidden coves just near Malibu,walk or cycle around the lake Hollywood Reservoir and see the iconic Hollywood sign in the mountains across the lake or find serenity in the Japanese Garden in the San Francisco Valley. The City of Los Angeles holds many distinctions. LA is the entertainment capital of the world, a cultural mecca boasting more than 300 museums, and a paradise of good weather. It is the only city in North America to have hosted the Summer Olympics twice. Downtown LA is the largest government center outside of Washington, D.C. Los Angeles is a major hub of shipping, manufacturing, industry, and finance, and is world-renowned in the entertainment and communications fields. It is a favorite vacation destination and attracts millions of tourists to the area each year from all over the world The opportunities that are offered to you,the glamour of Hollywood,the famous beaches,the celebrities and all the others amazing things that can be said about Los Angeles make it one of the most grandiose city in the world.

4

Chapter I:Introduction Los Angeles is the second largest city in the United States in terms of population and one of the largest in terms of area. It is the center of a five-county metropolitan area and is considered the prototype of the future metropolis—a city on the cutting edge of all of the advantages and the problems of large urban areas. The glamour of Hollywood, Beverly Hills, the Sunset Strip, and the famous beaches have added to Los Angeles's reputation as a California paradise and have contributed to the area's phenomenal growth. Los Angeles is a city of fascinating diversity, incorporating one of the largest Hispanic populations in the United States, a major Asian community, and sizable populations of nearly every ethnic background in the world. Los Angeles is also a center of international trade and banking, manufacturing, and tourism. The city offers something for everyone in its large conglomeration of separate and very different districts: a sleek, ultra-modern downtown, miles of beautiful beaches, mansions and stunning canyon homes built with opulent luxury, and some of the world's most glamorous shopping and dining. Beneath the glitter, though, is a troubled, racially divided city, with extremely high unemployment rates for young African Americans and Latinos.

5

Nicknamed the City of Angels, Los Angeles, often known by its initials L.A., is the most populous city in the U.S. state of California and the second-most populous in the United States, after New York City, with a population at the 2010 United States Census of 3,792,621. It has a land area of 469 square miles, and is located in Southern California. Los Angeles is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated and one of the most ethnically diverse counties in the United States, while the entire Los Angeles area itself has been recognized as the most diverse of the nation's largest cities. The city's inhabitants are referred to as Angelenos. The city is home to renowned institutions covering a broad range of professional and cultural fields and is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States. Los Angeles includes Hollywood and leads the world in the creation of television productions, video games, and recorded music; it is also one of the leaders in motion picture production. Los Angeles hosted the Summer Olympic Games in 1932 and 1984. Los Angeles was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve.It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence.In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, thereby becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood. One of the best ways to experience Los Angeles is by visiting its incredible cultural attractions. L.A. has more museums and theaters than any U.S. city, and a thriving music and gallery scene. An LA Philharmonic performance at Walt Disney Concert Hall is a must-see, as well as an outdoor concert at the Hollywood Bowl and shows at other famous music venues. L.A.’s world class museums include the stunning Getty Center in Brentwood and Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA) on Museum Row. Monthly artwalks take place throughout the city, including popular events in Downtown L.A. and Venice Beach. And of course, when it comes to film and television, Los Angeles is the entertainment capital of the world.

6

Chapter II:History The history of Los Angeles city and county begins with a small Mexican town that changed little in the three decades after 1848, when California became part of the United States. Much greater changes were to come from the completion of the Sante Fe railroad line from Chicago to Los Angeles in 1885. Immigrants flooded in, especially white Protestants from the Midwest. LA had a strong economic base in farming, oil, tourism, real estate and movies. It grew rapidly with only a small downtown and many suburban areas inside and outside the city limits. Hollywood made the city world famous, and World War II brought new industry, especially high-tech aircraft construction. Politically the city was moderately conservative, with a weak labor union sector. Since the 1960s growth has slowed—and massive traffic delays have become famous, despite the hundreds of miles of supposedly high speed freeways. New ethnic groups, especially from Mexico and Asia, have transformed the demographic base since the 1960s. Old industries have declined, including farming, oil and aircraft, but tourism, entertainment and high tech remain strong. The Los Angeles coastal area was first settled by the Tongva and Chumash Native American tribes thousands of years ago. Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, a Portuguese-born explorer, claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542. Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo( village) called "The Town of Our Lady the Queen of Angels of the Porciúncula River”. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, and the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico. During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876. Oil was discovered in 1892, and by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000, putting pressure on the city's water supply. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. In 1910, not only had the city of Los Angeles annexed Hollywood, but there were already at least 10 movie companies operating in the city. By 1921, more than 80 percent of the world's film industry was concentrated in L.A. The money generated by the industry kept the city insulated 7

from much of the economic pain suffered by the rest of the country during the Great Depression. By 1930, the population surpassed one million. In 1932, the city hosted the Summer Olympics.

Aerial view of the Hollywood Sign During World War II, Los Angeles was a major center of wartime manufacturing, such as shipbuilding and aircraft. Calship built hundreds of Liberty Ships and Victory Ships on Terminal Island, and the Los Angeles area was the headquarters of six of the country's major aircraft manufacturers. Following the end of World War II, Los Angeles grew more rapidly than ever, sprawling into the San Fernando Valley. In 1969, Los Angeles became one of the birthplaces of the Internet, as the first ARPANET transmission was sent from the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) to SRI(Standford Research Institute) in Menlo Park. In 1984, the city hosted the Summer Olympic Games for the second time. Despite being boycotted by 14 Communist countries, the 1984 Olympics became more financially successful than any previous, and the second Olympics to turn a profit until then – the other, according to an analysis of contemporary newspaper reports, being the 1932 Summer Olympics, also held in Los Angeles.

The Los Angeles Coliseum hosted the Olympic Games in 1932 and 1984 8

Racial tensions erupted on April 29, 1992, with the acquittal by a Simi Valley jury of the police officers captured on videotape beating Rodney King, culminating in large-scale riots. In 1994, the 6.7 Northridge earthquake shook the city, causing $12.5 billion in damage and 72 deaths. The century ended with the Rampart scandal, one of the most extensive documented cases of police misconduct in American history. In 2002, voters defeated efforts by the San Fernando Valley and Hollywood to secede from the city.

Panoramic view from 1921

9

Chapter III:Geography The city is divided into over 80 districts and neighborhoods, many of which were incorporated places or communities that were annexed by the city. Greater Los Angeles includes a number of enclaves and nearby communities. Generally, the city is divided into the following areas: Downtown Los Angeles, East Los Angeles and Northeast Los Angeles, South Los Angeles, the Harbor Area, Greater Hollywood, Wilshire, the Westside, and the San Fernando and Crescenta Valleys. Important landmarks in Los Angeles include Walt Disney Concert Hall, the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels, Angels Flight, the Kodak Theatre, the Griffith Observatory, the Getty Center, the Getty Villa, the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Grauman's Chinese Theatre, the Hollywood Sign, the Bradbury Building, Hollywood Boulevard, the Capitol Records Building, Los Angeles City Hall, the Hollywood Bowl, the Theme Building, Battleship USS Iowa, the Watts Towers, the Staples Center, Dodger Stadium, La Placita Olvera/Olvera Street and the Children's Hospital Los Angeles Sunset Bridge.

The Griffith Observatory Los Angeles is irregularly shaped and covers a total area of 502.7 square miles. (1,302 km2) The perimeter of the city is 342 miles (550 km). Los Angeles is both flat and hilly. The highest point in the city is 5,074 ft (1,547 m) Mount Lukens,located at the northeastern end of the San Fernando Valley. The eastern end of the Santa Monica Mountains stretches from Downtown to the Pacific Ocean and separates the Los Angeles Basin from the San Fernando Valley. Other hilly parts of Los Angeles include the Mt.

10

Washington area north of Downtown, eastern parts such as Boyle Heights, the Crenshaw district around the Baldwin Hills, and the San Pedro district. The Los Angeles area is rich in native plant species due in part to a diversity in habitats, including beaches, wetlands, and mountains. The Los Angeles River (also known as the L.A. River) starts in the Simi Hills and Santa Susana Mountains and flows through Los Angeles County, California, from Canoga Park in the western end of the San Fernando Valley, nearly 48 miles (77 km) southeast to its mouth in Long Beach. Los Angeles is subject to earthquakes due to its location on the Pacific Ring of Fire. The geologic instability has produced numerous faults, which cause approximately 10,000 earthquakes annually in Southern California, though most of them are too small to be felt. Los Angeles has a Subtropical-Mediterranean climate. Los Angeles has plenty of sunshine throughout the year, with an average of only 35 days with measurable precipitation annually. Owing to geography, heavy reliance on automobiles, and the Los Angeles/Long Beach port complex, Los Angeles suffers from air pollution in the form of smog. The smog season lasts from May to October. Unlike other large cities that rely on rain to clear smog, Los Angeles gets only 15 inches (380 mm) of rain each year: pollution accumulates over many consecutive days. The 2006 and 2007 annual reports of the American Lung Association ranked the city as the most polluted in the country.

11

Chapter IV:Demographics The 2010 United States Census reported that Los Angeles had a population of 3,792,621.The population density was 7,544.6 people per square mile (2,913.0/km²). Los Angeles is home to people from more than 140 countries speaking 224 different identified languages. Ethnic enclaves like Chinatown, Historic Filipinotown, Koreatown, Little Armenia, Little Ethiopia, Tehrangeles, Little Tokyo, and Thai Town provide examples of the polyglot character of Los Angeles. The Roman Catholic Archbishop of Los Angeles leads the largest archdiocese in the country.Cardinal Roger Mahony oversaw construction of the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels, which opened in September 2002 in downtown Los Angeles.Construction of the cathedral marked a coming of age of the city's Catholic, heavily Latino community. There are numerous Catholic churches and parishes throughout Los Angeles.

Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels With 621,000 Jews in the metropolitan area (490,000 in city proper), the region has the second largest population of Jews in the United States.

12

The Los Angeles California Temple, the second largest temple operated by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, is on Santa Monica Boulevard in the Westwood district of Los Angeles. Dedicated in 1956, it was the first Mormon temple built in California and it was the largest in the world when completed.

Los Angeles California Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints The Hollywood region of Los Angeles also has several significant headquarters, churches, and the Celebrity Center of Scientology. Because of Los Angeles' large multi-ethnic population, a wide variety of faiths are practiced, including Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, Zoroastrianism, Sikhism, Bahá'í, various Eastern Orthodox Churches, Sufism and others. Immigrants from Asia for example, have formed a number of significant Buddhist congregations making the city home to the greatest variety of Buddhists in the world.

13

Chapter V:Economy The economy of Los Angeles is driven by international trade, entertainment (television, motion pictures, video games, recorded music), aerospace, technology, petroleum, fashion, apparel, and tourism. Los Angeles is also the largest manufacturing center in the western United States. The contiguous ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach together comprise the fifth-busiest port in the world and the most significant port in the Western Hemisphere and is vital to trade within the Pacific Rim.Other significant industries include media production, finance, telecommunications, law, healthcare, and transportation.

Downtown Plaza The Los Angeles–Long Beach–Santa Ana metropolitan statistical area (MSA) has a gross metropolitan product (GMP) of $735.7 billion (as of 2010), making it the third largest economic center in the world, after the Greater Tokyo Area and the New York-Newark-Bridgeport CSA.If counted as a country, the surrounding CSA has the 15th largest economy in the world in terms of nominal GDP.Los Angeles has been classified an "Alpha world city" according to a 2012 study by a research group at Loughborough University in England.

14

The city is home to six Fortune 500 companies. They are energy company Occidental Petroleum, healthcare provider Health Net, metals distributor Reliance Steel & Aluminum, engineering firm AECOM, real estate group CBRE Group and builder Tutor Perini. The University of Southern California (USC) is the city's largest private sector employer and contributes $4 billion annually to the local economy.

15

Chapter VI:Culture Los Angeles is often billed as the "Creative Capital of the World," due to the fact that one in every six of its residents works in a creative industry and that there are more artists, writers, filmmakers, actors, dancers and musicians living and working in Los Angeles than any other city at any time in the history.

The Dolby Theatre; venue for the Academy Awards

Motion Pictures The greater Los Angeles area is the most important site in the United States for movie and television production. This has drawn not only actors, but also writers, composers, artists, and other creative individuals to the area. The area is home to many institutes that study and appreciate film production, such as the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences and American Film Institute. Various awards are given annually for movie and television production, some of which garner huge worldwide audiences. Although film production in Los Angeles remains the most important center for the medium, Hollywood has become more international, thus it faces increasing competition, however, from 16

other parts of the United States and from the Canadian cities of Vancouver and Toronto as well as numerous other countries around the world such as Romania and Australasia that provide Hollywood with lower production costs. The motion picture and TV industries have helped create the image that defines Los Angeles across the world. Many tourists flock to see Hollywood-related landmarks such as the Walk of Fame and the Grauman's Chinese Theatre.

Literature Los Angeles's literary history includes legendary authors like Raymond Chandler, whose hardboiled detective stories were set in pre-war and immediate post-war L.A. Ross Macdonald carried on the Chandler tradition into the 1950s, and in the 1960s and 1970s blended it with themes of classical tragedy. Walter Mosley, James Elroy and Joseph Hansen are among the local successors to Chandler. Nathaniel West's book, The Day of the Locust, depicted a raw side to the Hollywood dream. Ray Bradbury wrote science fiction after moving to the city in 1934. Actress Carrie Fisher has found success as a novelist. The best known local poet was Charles Bukowski, who mostly lived in Hollywood but in the later part of his life lived in San Pedro. Tens of thousands of screenplays have been written by L.A. city residents, and the movie business has attracted many authors, including F. Scott Fitzgerald, Aldous Huxley, Tennessee Williams, Evelyn Waugh, and William Faulkner. Los Angeles has provided fertile territory for writers of fiction with crime fiction being a common genre for stories about the city. During the twentieth century, fiction portraying the city has highlighted the complexity of the city and the discontinuities between its public image and the reality of living there. The size and scale of the city have also provided crime writers with a suitably complex city against which to set their stories.

Music As well as being one of the most important cities in the world in the film industry, Los Angeles, California, is also one of the most important places in the world for the recorded music industry. Many landmarks in Los Angeles - such as Capitol Records, which resembles a stack of albums are representative of this. A&M Records long occupied a studio off Sunset Boulevard built by Charlie Chaplin (who wrote the music for his own films). The Warner Brothers built a major recording business in addition to their film business. At the other end of the business, local Rhino Records began a reissue boom by digging through archives of old recordings and repackaging them for modern audiences.

17

Art Los Angeles is known for its mural art, and its thousands of examples of wall art are believed to outnumber those in every other city in the world. Mexican muralists such as Diego Rivera, David Alfaro Siqueiros and José Clemente Orozco all created murals in the area. Some of the most respected art museums in the world can be found in Los Angeles. They include the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, the J. Paul Getty Museum, the Norton Simon Museum, the Huntington Library art collection and botanical gardens, and the Hammer Museum at the University of California, Los Angeles.

Architecture Los Angeles has many different types of architectural styles scattered throughout the city and nearby satellite cities. Los Angeles has a rich, diverse history of architectural works, having been known throughout professional architectural circles as a testbed for architecture. The case study houses in particular revolutionized residential architecture. Architects such as Richard Neutra, Pierre Koenig, John Lautner and Frank Lloyd Wright all have important works in the city. Some of the different types of architectural styles throughout the city and metropolitan area are mission revival, Spanish colonial revival, craftsman, Norman French provincial, French chateau, English Tudor, beaux arts, art deco, and streamline moderne.

The Los Angeles County Museum of Art

18

Chapter VII:Sports The city of Los Angeles is the home of several major league professional sports teams. These teams include the Los Angeles Dodgers of Major League Baseball, the Los Angeles Clippers and Los Angeles Lakers of the National Basketball Association, and the Los Angeles Kings of the National Hockey League. Los Angeles hosted the Summer Olympic Games twice. They hosted the games for the first time in 1932. Los Angeles hosted the games once again in 1984. Los Angeles has made a total of nine Summer Olympic bids in its history, more than any other city. Los Angeles along with Athens, Paris and London are the four cities that have hosted the Summer Olympic Games twice. In 1994 the United States hosted the FIFA World Cup. The Rose Bowl in Pasadena was one of the venues used during the World Cup. The venue hosted eight of the games including the final where Brazil defeated Italy 3-2 on penalties. The Rose Bowl was used again during the 1999 Women's World Cup. The venue hosted four matches including the final where the United States defeated China 5-4 on penalties. The United States hosted the Women's World Cup again in 2003. The Home Depot Center, now known as StubHub Center, in Carson was one of the venues that was used in the event. The venue hosted six games, including the final where Germany defeated Sweden 2-1.

Dodger Stadium is the home of theLos Angeles Dodgers

19

Chapter VIII:Government Los Angeles is a charter city as opposed to a general law city. The current charter was adopted on June 8, 1999 and has been amended many times since then.The elected government consists of the Los Angeles City Council and the Mayor of Los Angeles which operate under a mayorcouncil government, as well as the city attorney (not to be confused with the district attorney, a county office) and controller. The current mayor is Eric Garcetti. There are 15 city council districts. The city has many departments and appointed officers, including the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD), the Los Angeles Board of Police Commissioners, the Los Angeles Fire Department (LAFD), the Housing Authority of the City of Los Angeles (HACLA), the Los Angeles Department of Transportation (LADOT), and the Los Angeles Public Library (LAPL). Like most American cities, Like most American cities, Los Angeles has been experiencing significant decline in crime since the mid-1990s, and reached a 50-year low in 2009 with 314 homicides. Police speculate that the drop resulted from a number of factors, including young people spending more time online. According to the Los Angeles Police Department, the city is home to 45,000 gang members, organized into 450 gangs.

The LAPD on May Day 2006 in front of the new Caltrans District 7 Headquarters 20

Conclusion To sum up , Los Angeles is a vital place in the history of music , film industry and any kind of entertainment .The city of Los Angeles has become a real symbol ,almost a trademark of the United States, being very popular among people from all over the world. Los Angeles is the one place on the planet where people come exclusively to dream and create. Los Angeles is the city with the most substance in the United States ,cultural substance. Los Angeles if a great urban center, a symbol of capitalism , a testimony to American ingenuity .It is a paradise for actors and artists,a place where fantasies become reality .This great city of angels is a place where things get done .This is why I chose to talk about this city,for it is representative for our modern world and for values and ideals of Western civilization. A city of dreams, a little piece of paradise, the perfect place to spend a holiday , a city where I wish to spend my life, a city that has its flaws but are by far outweighed by its perks, that is Los Angeles.

21

Bibliography     

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Los_Angeles http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Los_Angeles http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Los_Angeles_County,_California#Economy http://www.discoverlosangeles.com/ http://www.timeout.com/los-angeles/things-to-do/los-angeles-attractions

22

View more...

Comments

Copyright © 2017 KUPDF Inc.
SUPPORT KUPDF Sitemap